Most cardiovascular diseases can now be brought under control thanks to modern drugs. Which medication is suitable for whom depends on many individual factors: age, type, and severity of the disease, the presence of certain concomitant diseases or interactions, and intolerances. Sometimes the doctor also chooses a combination of different drugs that complement each other well in their effects. A distinction is made between the following drug groups and principles of action. some times some medicines are used for drug addiction treatment.
ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)
These active ingredients inhibit an endogenous enzyme that contributes significantly to the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a hormone that constricts blood vessels and therefore increases blood pressure ( hypertension ). If less of this endogenous substance is produced, the blood pressure drops.
Today, ACE inhibitors are also used to treat cardiac insufficiency (heart failure) because they make blood flow easier by widening the blood vessels and thus relieve the heart.
In both indications — high blood pressure (hypertension) and cardiac insufficiency — the ACE inhibitors are among the drug addiction treatment of the first choice due to their good tolerability.
Antiarrhythmics include a wide variety of drugs that are used to treat cardiac arrhythmias. These influence the formation and transmission of electrical excitations in the heart in different ways. When treating with antiarrhythmics, the frequency and severity of the arrhythmia, as well as the type and extent of the underlying heart disease, must be taken into account.
Selective beta-blockers block the so-called beta receptors on the heart and on the blood vessel walls and thereby inhibit the effects of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. This relieves the load on the heart by slowing down the heartbeat rate and reducing the force with which the heart muscle contracts. The heart works gently, so to speak. Beta-blockers cause the blood vessels to expand.
Today beta-blockers are used successfully to treat high blood pressure, coronary artery disease (CHD), and certain cardiac arrhythmias.
Beta-blockers are also used to treat heart failure after large scientific studies have shown that beta-blocker therapy improves life expectancy. The therapy should, however, be started very carefully and at a low dose. be care it will be drug-addicted
At the beginning of therapy, the patient may experience reduced physical stress. After a few months of therapy, the resilience increases significantly.
Calcium antagonists dilate the blood vessels and coronary arteries. On the one hand, this lowers blood pressure and relieves the heart. On the other hand, more blood can flow through the enlarged coronary arteries, thereby significantly improving the oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
Calcium antagonists are used for high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, and for long-term treatment of coronary artery disease.
Diuretics are popularly called “water tablets.” They increase the excretion of water and salt by the kidneys. This reduces the amount of fluid in the bloodstream and reduces pressure in the arteries. If you take a diuretic, you will likely use the toilet more often Diuretics are used in long-term treatment with careful control of the mineral balance (potassium, sodium).
Anticoagulants delay blood clotting by reducing the body’s own production of certain coagulation proteins or by interacting directly with the coagulation factors. The clotting time is specifically extended and the formation of unwanted clots, which can clog a blood vessel, is prevented.
The inhibition of blood coagulation by preparations must be precisely adjusted. If, for example, blood coagulation is inhibited too weakly, adequate protection against the formation of clots is not guaranteed. Too strong an inhibition of blood coagulation, on the other hand, increases the tendency to increased bleeding. Therefore, frequent and regular blood clotting checks are necessary.
Nitrates relieve the heart by widening the veins and arteries. As a result, on the one hand, they reduce the heart’s need for oxygen, and, on the other hand, they improve the oxygen supply to the heart muscles. Some of these drugs work very quickly and are used as a spray or bite capsule for an angina attack. Here they ensure that the heart is quickly supplied with blood again. Long-acting preparations are used for the long-term treatment of coronary heart disease in order to prevent an attack of angina pectoris as much as possible.
Sartans (angiotensin receptor blockers)
Spartans reduce the effects of the hormone angiotensin II. This causes the blood vessels to dilate and blood pressure to drop. The angiotensin receptor blockers are very similar to the ACE inhibitors in their mode of action. They are used as an alternative when ACE inhibitors cannot be tolerated.
The task of platelet aggregation inhibitors is to prevent platelets from clumping together (platelet aggregation). In particular, the growth of blood clots (thrombi) in the arteries (arteries) is to be prevented. Thrombi can clog the arteries and make the supply of important organs difficult or impossible. The main field of application of platelet aggregation inhibitors in the prevention of strokes, heart attacks, and other circulatory disorders.
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